76 years of India’s forceful annexation of Juna Gadh
India forcefully annexes princely state of Juna Gadh for 76 years.
In 1947, Nawab of Juna Gadh, Mahabat Khan, had announced the accession of Juna Gadh to Pakistan.
This announcement was made with the approval of the Juna Gadh State Council. Indian politicians insisted on changing the Nawab’s decision, but India faced failure.
Subsequently, on November 9, 1947, India established control over Juna Gadh through armed force. Indian forces carried out large-scale killings, and looting of properties, and inflicted heavy losses on the dignity and assets of Muslims in Juna Gadh.
The name “Junagadh” translates to “Old Fort” in the Gujarati language.
It refers to the fort that was built during the reign of the Mauryan Empire and still stands as a symbol of the city’s historical significance.
Where is Juna Gadh?
Juna Gadh, also known as Junagadh, is located in the western Indian state of Gujarat.
It is situated at the foot of the Girnar hills and is approximately 327 kilometers southwest of Ahmedabad, the largest city in Gujarat.
What is the current status of Juna Gadh?
Junagadh, also known as Juna Gadh, is a part of the Indian state of Gujarat. After India’s independence in 1947, there was a dispute over the accession of Junagadh. Eventually, through a plebiscite held in February 1948, the majority of the population voted in favor of joining India. Since then, Junagadh has been an integral part of the Indian Union.
Pakistan’s stance on Juna Gadh?
Pakistan’s stance on Junagadh has evolved over time. Initially, after the partition of British India in 1947, the Nawab of Junagadh, Mahabat Khan, announced the accession of Junagadh to Pakistan. However, this move was not recognized by India, leading to a dispute over the territory.
In 1947, India launched an armed intervention in Junagadh, and after a plebiscite held in February 1948, the majority of the population voted in favor of joining India. Pakistan did not accept the plebiscite results and has maintained a position that Junagadh should have been a part of Pakistan based on religious demographics, as the majority of Junagadh’s population was Muslim.
However, over time, the issue of Junagadh has largely been settled, and it remains a part of the Indian state of Gujarat. The international community recognizes Junagadh as a part of India, and there have been no recent significant developments regarding Pakistan’s stance on the matter.
How many states were there in the Indian subcontinent at the time of Partition?
At the time of Partition in 1947, the Indian subcontinent consisted of two major entities: British India and the Princely States.
British India was directly under the control of the British colonial government and was further divided into two categories: British India Provinces and British India Princely States. The British India Provinces were administered by British officials, while the British India Princely States were ruled by local monarchs under the overall authority of the British government.
There were 11 British India Provinces, which were:
6. Central Provinces and Berar
7. Northwest Frontier Province
11. United Provinces
In addition to the British India Provinces, there were also numerous Princely States scattered throughout the subcontinent, each with its own ruler. The exact number of Princely States varied over time, but at the time of Partition, there were around 565 Princely States.
After Partition, most of the Princely States decided to join either India or Pakistan based on various factors such as geographical location, demographics, and the wishes of their rulers and populations. The majority of the Princely States merged with either India or Pakistan, leading to the formation of the present-day countries of India and Pakistan.
How many states joined Pakistan?
At the time of Partition in 1947, a total of six Muslim-majority provinces or regions joined Pakistan. These regions were:
1. Punjab: The western regions of the Punjab province, which had a Muslim majority, became a part of Pakistan. The eastern regions of Punjab went to India.
2. Sindh: The entire province of Sindh, which had a Muslim majority, became a part of Pakistan.
3. Balochistan: The entire province of Balochistan, which had a Muslim majority, became a part of Pakistan.
4. North-West Frontier Province (now called Khyber Pakhtunkhwa): The North-West Frontier Province, which had a Muslim majority, joined Pakistan. It is now known as Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
5. East Bengal (later became East Pakistan, now Bangladesh): The eastern region of Bengal, which had a Muslim majority, initially became a part of Pakistan as East Bengal. However, it later separated from Pakistan and became the independent country of Bangladesh in 1971.
6. Gilgit-Baltistan: The region of Gilgit-Baltistan, which had a Muslim majority, joined Pakistan. Initially, it was a part of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir but later became a separate administrative unit within Pakistan.
It’s important to note that the number of states that joined Pakistan may vary depending on how one defines “states” and the specific timeframes considered.
Junagadh is Famous For
Junagadh is famous for several attractions and historical significance. Some of the notable features and attractions that make Junagadh famous include:
1. Uparkot Fort: The Uparkot Fort is an ancient fort located atop a hill in Junagadh. It is known for its impressive architecture and historical significance.
2. Gir National Park: Junagadh is the gateway to Gir National Park, the last refuge of the Asiatic lion. The park is renowned for its wildlife, including lions, leopards, deer, and various bird species.
3. Girnar: Girnar is a group of hills located near Junagadh and is considered a major pilgrimage site for Hindus and Jains. It is known for its temples, including the famous Neminath Temple and Amba Mata Temple.
4. Mahabat Maqbara: Mahabat Maqbara is a mausoleum complex known for its intricate architecture and beautiful design. It is a prominent example of Indo-Islamic architectural style.
5. Ashoka’s Rock Edicts: Junagadh houses one of the rock edicts of Emperor Ashoka, which dates back to the 3rd century BCE. These edicts provide valuable historical and cultural insights.
6. Wildlife Conservation Efforts: Junagadh and its surrounding areas are known for their efforts in wildlife conservation, particularly for the preservation of the Asiatic lion population in Gir National Park.
These are just a few highlights, and Junagadh boasts a rich history, cultural heritage, and natural beauty that attract visitors from around the world.