Post Partition Pakistan #29 Historical Developments 2018-2022
The Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) government, led by Prime Minister Imran Khan, assumed office in Pakistan after winning the general elections held on July 25, 2018.
During its tenure from 2018 to 2022, Pakistan experienced various political, economic, and social events. Here are some notable events and developments during this period:
- Economic Reforms and Challenges:
- The PTI government embarked on economic reforms, seeking financial assistance from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to address the country’s economic challenges, including fiscal deficits and rising debt.
- Pakistan’s economy faced inflationary pressures, currency devaluation, and efforts to enhance revenue collection through tax reforms.
- China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC):
- The CPEC projects continued to progress, with investments in infrastructure, energy, and transportation aimed at improving connectivity and boosting economic development.
- Relations with India:
- Tensions between Pakistan and India remained high, with incidents of cross-border violence in the disputed region of Kashmir, leading to concerns about regional stability.
- Afghan Peace Process:
- Pakistan played a significant role in facilitating the Afghan peace process, hosting negotiations between the Afghan government and the Taliban in Islamabad.
- COVID-19 Pandemic:
- The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on Pakistan, with the government implementing lockdowns and vaccination campaigns to mitigate the spread of the virus.
- Governance and Accountability:
- The PTI government launched an accountability drive, pursuing cases of corruption and accountability of public officials.
- Political Protests:
- Opposition parties, including the Pakistan Democratic Movement (PDM), held rallies and protests against the government, demanding electoral reforms and accountability.
- Local Government Elections:
- Local government elections were held in various provinces, with PTI securing victories in some regions.
- Environmental Initiatives:
- The government initiated various environmental initiatives, including tree planting campaigns to combat deforestation and climate change.
- Infrastructure Development:
- Infrastructure development projects were launched, including the Lahore-Sialkot Motorway and the Diamer-Bhasha Dam, to address transportation and water resource needs.
- Relations with the United States: – Pakistan worked on improving its relationship with the United States, engaging in diplomatic efforts to enhance cooperation on regional security issues.
- Youth and Social Welfare Programs: – The government introduced various social welfare programs, including the Ehsaas Program, aimed at providing financial assistance to low-income families and addressing poverty.
Please note that this is a summary of some key events and developments during the PTI government’s tenure from 2018 to 2022. The period witnessed a mix of challenges and reforms as Pakistan worked to address its economic, political, and social issues while navigating regional and international dynamics.
During the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) government’s tenure from 2018 to 2022, several key leaders played vital roles in shaping the country’s political landscape and government policies. Some of the prominent leaders during this period included:
- Imran Khan (Prime Minister): Imran Khan, the chairman of PTI, assumed office as the Prime Minister of Pakistan after the PTI’s victory in the 2018 general elections. He played a central role in leading the government, setting its agenda, and making key policy decisions.
- Shah Mehmood Qureshi (Foreign Minister): Shah Mehmood Qureshi served as Pakistan’s Foreign Minister and played a crucial role in managing the country’s foreign relations, particularly during discussions on regional peace and relations with neighboring countries.
- Asad Umar (Former Finance Minister): Asad Umar was initially appointed as Pakistan’s Finance Minister and played a significant role in implementing economic reforms and negotiating financial assistance packages with international organizations like the IMF.
- Jahangir Tareen: Jahangir Tareen was a key figure in PTI’s leadership and was involved in party and government affairs. He played a role in supporting PTI’s policies and initiatives.
- Pervez Khattak (Former Defense Minister and Minister for Interior): Pervez Khattak served as Pakistan’s Defense Minister and later as the Minister for Interior. He played a critical role in managing security and internal affairs.
- Fawad Chaudhry: Fawad Chaudhry held various ministerial positions during this period, including Information Minister. He was known for his communication skills and played a role in government messaging.
- Shehbaz Sharif (Opposition Leader): Shehbaz Sharif, the president of the Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz) (PML-N), served as the Leader of the Opposition in the National Assembly. He led the opposition’s efforts to hold the government accountable and criticized its policies.
- Bilawal Bhutto Zardari: Bilawal Bhutto Zardari, the chairman of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), played a role in the opposition’s activities and advocated for his party’s policies and priorities.
These leaders, among others, were instrumental in shaping the political landscape and governance in Pakistan during the PTI government’s tenure from 2018 to 2022. Their roles and actions influenced various aspects of the country’s policies, both domestically and internationally.
Economic Reforms, Progress and challenges
During the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) government’s tenure from 2018 to 2022, Pakistan implemented several economic reforms, encountered challenges, and witnessed varying degrees of progress in its economic landscape. Here are some of the key economic reforms, progress, and challenges during this period:
Economic Reforms and Progress:
- IMF Program: The PTI government entered into an International Monetary Fund (IMF) program to stabilize Pakistan’s economy. This program included fiscal consolidation, structural reforms, and efforts to improve the business environment.
- Tax Reforms: The government aimed to broaden the tax base and increase tax revenue through measures such as the Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Act and digitalization of tax collection systems.
- Ease of Doing Business: Pakistan made efforts to improve its ranking in the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business Index by implementing reforms to simplify business registration and reduce bureaucratic hurdles.
- Public Debt Management: Measures were taken to manage public debt more effectively and reduce the budget deficit.
- Energy Sector Reforms: The government worked on addressing energy sector challenges, including the circular debt issue and power sector reforms.
- CPEC Projects: The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) projects continued to progress, contributing to infrastructure development and economic growth.
- Digital Economy: The government aimed to promote the digital economy, with initiatives such as the launch of digital payment systems and encouraging e-commerce.
- Inflation: Pakistan faced inflationary pressures during this period, affecting the cost of living for the general population.
- Fiscal Deficit: The fiscal deficit remained a significant challenge, and efforts to reduce it often led to austerity measures that impacted social programs and public services.
- Public Debt: Pakistan’s public debt continued to rise, leading to concerns about debt sustainability.
- Trade Deficit: The trade deficit persisted, with imports exceeding exports, putting pressure on the country’s foreign exchange reserves.
- Unemployment: Addressing unemployment remained a challenge, particularly among the youth.
- Structural Reforms: Implementing structural reforms in sectors such as state-owned enterprises, agriculture, and the public sector proved challenging due to vested interests and political opposition.
- Informal Economy: A significant portion of Pakistan’s economy operated in the informal sector, making it difficult to collect taxes and regulate economic activities.
- External Factors: Pakistan faced external economic challenges, including changes in global oil prices, which affected its import bill, and fluctuations in remittances from overseas Pakistanis.
- Social Safety Nets: Ensuring social safety nets and support for vulnerable populations while implementing economic reforms posed a balancing act for the government.
The economic landscape during the PTI government’s tenure was marked by efforts to stabilize the economy, implement reforms, and address longstanding challenges. While progress was made in some areas, challenges such as inflation, fiscal deficits, and public debt remained pressing issues. Achieving sustained economic growth and stability required continued efforts and structural reforms.
Political and constitutional Reforms, Progress and Challenges
During the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) government’s tenure from 2018 to 2022, Pakistan witnessed various political and constitutional reforms, as well as encountered several challenges. Here are some of the key political and constitutional reforms, progress, and challenges during this period:
Political and Constitutional Reforms:
- Local Government Elections: The government held local government elections in several provinces, granting more autonomy to local bodies to manage local affairs and resources.
- Election Reforms: Efforts were made to improve the electoral process and address concerns about electoral transparency and fairness. The government established a parliamentary committee to discuss electoral reforms.
- Governance Reforms: The PTI government aimed to improve governance by streamlining administrative processes, increasing transparency, and reducing corruption.
- Devolution of Power: The government emphasized devolution of power from the federal level to the provinces, allowing provinces to have more control over their affairs.
- Judicial Reforms: Measures were taken to reform the judicial system, improve the efficiency of the courts, and address the backlog of cases.
Progress in Political and Constitutional Reforms:
- Local Governance: Local government elections were held in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) and Punjab, allowing local authorities to make decisions on local development projects and public services.
- Electoral Transparency: Initiatives to improve electoral transparency included the introduction of Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) and the use of biometric verification.
- Governance Improvements: The government introduced digital platforms for citizen engagement, including the Pakistan Citizen’s Portal, which allowed citizens to lodge complaints and seek redressal.
- Devolution: Steps were taken to empower provincial governments and local authorities, decentralizing decision-making and resources.
Challenges in Political and Constitutional Reforms:
- Opposition Protests: Opposition parties, including the Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N) and the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), held protests against the government, raising concerns about the government’s legitimacy and policies.
- Constitutional Amendments: Proposing and implementing constitutional amendments required political consensus and approval from Parliament, which could be challenging in a polarized political environment.
- Judicial Delays: Despite efforts to reform the judicial system, judicial delays and backlog of cases remained a challenge.
- Inter-Provincial Relations: Devolving power to the provinces occasionally led to disagreements and conflicts between federal and provincial authorities.
- Political Polarization: Political polarization remained a challenge, impacting the ability to build consensus on key reforms.
- Electoral Challenges: Implementing electoral reforms required cooperation among political parties, and some opposition parties expressed reservations about the government’s proposed changes.
Addressing these challenges and continuing political and constitutional reforms required political will, cooperation among different stakeholders, and a commitment to strengthening Pakistan’s democratic institutions. The PTI government’s efforts to improve governance, electoral transparency, and local governance were part of its broader agenda to strengthen democratic processes in the country.
Health Reforms, Progress and Challenges
During the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) government’s tenure from 2018 to 2022, Pakistan initiated various health reforms, encountered challenges, and made progress in the healthcare sector. Here are some key health reforms, progress, and challenges during this period:
Health Reforms and Progress:
- Sehat Sahulat Program: The government launched the Sehat Sahulat Program, aimed at providing health insurance coverage to vulnerable and low-income households. The program aimed to improve access to healthcare services and reduce out-of-pocket expenses for medical treatment.
- Vaccination Drives: The government intensified efforts to improve immunization coverage across the country, focusing on polio eradication and expanding vaccination services to underserved areas.
- Health Infrastructure: Investments were made in healthcare infrastructure, including the construction and renovation of hospitals and healthcare facilities.
- Primary Healthcare: There was a focus on strengthening primary healthcare services and facilities, particularly in rural and remote areas, to enhance access to basic medical care.
- Digital Health: The government introduced digital health initiatives, including electronic health records and telemedicine services, to modernize healthcare delivery and improve data management.
- Public Health Emergencies: Pakistan faced public health emergencies, including the COVID-19 pandemic. The government implemented measures to control the spread of the virus, including lockdowns, testing, and vaccination campaigns.
- Health Infrastructure Gaps: Despite investments in healthcare infrastructure, gaps in healthcare facilities, equipment, and trained healthcare professionals remained a challenge, particularly in remote areas.
- Health Inequities: Health inequities persisted, with disparities in access to healthcare services between urban and rural areas and among different socioeconomic groups.
- Disease Outbreaks: Pakistan continued to face outbreaks of diseases such as dengue and hepatitis, requiring public health responses and management.
- Vaccine Hesitancy: Vaccine hesitancy and misinformation posed challenges to immunization efforts, particularly during polio vaccination campaigns.
- Malnutrition: Malnutrition remained a critical issue, affecting child health and development. Efforts to combat malnutrition required a multi-pronged approach.
- Healthcare Workforce: A shortage of skilled healthcare professionals, including doctors and nurses, was a persistent challenge, affecting the quality and availability of healthcare services.
- Mental Health: Mental health remained an under-addressed issue, with limited access to mental health services and awareness.
Improving healthcare access, quality, and infrastructure remained a priority for the PTI government. The launch of the Sehat Sahulat Program and efforts to expand vaccination coverage were notable steps toward achieving universal healthcare coverage. However, addressing the remaining challenges, such as healthcare infrastructure gaps, health inequities, and disease outbreaks, required sustained efforts and investments in the healthcare sector.
Educational Reforms, Progress and Challenges
During the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) government’s tenure from 2018 to 2022, Pakistan initiated various educational reforms, encountered challenges, and made progress in the education sector. Here are some key educational reforms, progress, and challenges during this period:
Educational Reforms and Progress:
- Single National Curriculum (SNC): The PTI government introduced the Single National Curriculum, aiming to standardize the curriculum across public and private schools, reduce disparities, and promote a unified education system.
- Education Budget: The government allocated a significant portion of the budget to education, with a focus on increasing investment in the sector.
- Higher Education: Efforts were made to strengthen higher education institutions, improve research and development, and promote innovation.
- Girls’ Education: Initiatives to promote girls’ education were undertaken, including scholarships and incentives to enroll and retain female students in schools.
- Technical and Vocational Education: The government emphasized technical and vocational education and training (TVET) to equip students with practical skills for employment.
- Online Learning: The COVID-19 pandemic accelerated efforts to introduce online learning platforms and digital resources for students and teachers.
- Access to Education: Despite efforts to improve access to education, particularly in rural and remote areas, challenges of low enrollment and high dropout rates persisted.
- Quality of Education: Ensuring the quality of education remained a challenge, with variations in teaching standards, outdated curriculum, and insufficient teacher training.
- Gender Disparities: Gender disparities in education, including lower enrollment and retention rates for girls, continued to be a concern.
- Infrastructure Gaps: Many schools lacked adequate infrastructure, including classrooms, electricity, and sanitation facilities.
- Teacher Shortages: A shortage of qualified teachers affected the quality of education, with some schools relying on underqualified or temporary staff.
- Education Financing: Despite increased budget allocations, achieving adequate funding for the education sector remained a challenge.
- Education in Marginalized Areas: Ensuring access to quality education in marginalized areas, such as Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, required targeted efforts and investments.
- Curriculum Implementation: The rollout of the Single National Curriculum faced challenges related to implementation and acceptance by various educational institutions.
Improving the education sector is a complex and long-term endeavor. The PTI government’s initiatives aimed at addressing some of these challenges and improving the quality and accessibility of education. However, sustained efforts and investments are necessary to fully realize the goals of education reform, including enhancing access, quality, and inclusivity in Pakistan’s education system.
Water Reforms, Progress and challenges
During the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) government’s tenure from 2018 to 2022, Pakistan faced significant challenges in the water sector and initiated some reforms and projects to address these challenges. Here are key water-related reforms, progress, and challenges during this period:
Water Reforms and Progress:
- Diamer-Bhasha Dam: The government initiated the construction of the Diamer-Bhasha Dam, a multi-purpose project aimed at storing water, generating electricity, and regulating river flows. The project was seen as a crucial step in addressing Pakistan’s water storage needs.
- Water Policy: The government developed a National Water Policy to address water-related challenges comprehensively. The policy aimed to promote water conservation, efficient water use, and equitable water distribution.
- Rural Water Supply Schemes: The government launched various rural water supply schemes to improve access to clean drinking water in remote and underserved areas.
- Rainwater Harvesting: Efforts were made to promote rainwater harvesting techniques to conserve water resources.
- River Cleaning Initiatives: Initiatives were taken to clean polluted rivers and water bodies, with a focus on improving water quality.
- Water Scarcity: Pakistan faced acute water scarcity due to decreasing water storage capacity, over-extraction of groundwater, and inefficient water management practices.
- Water Stress: Water stress was exacerbated by population growth, climate change, and reduced water availability from upstream sources.
- Indus Water Treaty: Disputes and tensions with India over water sharing under the Indus Water Treaty continued, impacting the availability of water resources.
- Infrastructure Gaps: The country’s water infrastructure, including irrigation systems and reservoirs, required significant upgrades and maintenance.
- Groundwater Depletion: Over-extraction of groundwater for agriculture and domestic use led to declining water tables and land subsidence.
- Water Pollution: Water pollution from industrial and agricultural runoff remained a significant issue, affecting water quality and public health.
- Efficient Water Use: Promoting efficient water use in agriculture, which is the largest consumer of water, required policy changes and modernization of irrigation systems.
- Transboundary Water Issues: Pakistan faced challenges related to the sharing of transboundary rivers with neighboring countries, including disputes over the construction of dams and water diversion projects.
Addressing Pakistan’s water challenges required a multi-pronged approach, including investments in water infrastructure, sustainable water management practices, and cooperation with neighboring countries. The Diamer-Bhasha Dam project and the National Water Policy were steps toward addressing water scarcity and improving water resource management. However, long-term solutions would require sustained efforts, effective policies, and collaboration at the national and international levels.
Climate change reforms, progress and challenges
During the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) government’s tenure from 2018 to 2022, Pakistan faced significant challenges related to climate change and initiated various reforms and projects to address these challenges. Here are key climate change-related reforms, progress, and challenges during this period:
Climate Change Reforms and Progress:
- Clean Energy Initiatives: The government promoted clean energy sources, including solar and wind power, to reduce reliance on fossil fuels and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Several renewable energy projects were initiated.
- Afforestation Campaigns: The government launched tree plantation campaigns to combat deforestation and mitigate the effects of climate change. One notable initiative was the Billion Tree Tsunami project in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
- Glacier Monitoring: Pakistan took steps to monitor glaciers in the Himalayas and Karakoram ranges to assess the impact of climate change and potential glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs).
- Climate Adaptation: The government worked on climate adaptation strategies to reduce vulnerability to climate change impacts, particularly in disaster-prone areas.
- Climate Finance: Pakistan sought climate finance from international sources to fund climate-resilient projects and initiatives.
Climate Change Challenges:
- Extreme Weather Events: Pakistan continued to experience extreme weather events, including floods, droughts, and heatwaves, which resulted in loss of lives and damage to infrastructure.
- Glacial Melt: The melting of glaciers in northern Pakistan due to rising temperatures posed risks of glacial lake outbursts and long-term water scarcity.
- Water Scarcity: Climate change exacerbated water scarcity, affecting agriculture and access to clean drinking water.
- Agriculture Vulnerability: Changing weather patterns and increased temperatures affected crop yields and food security, making agriculture more vulnerable.
- Coastal Erosion: Rising sea levels and coastal erosion posed threats to coastal communities and infrastructure.
- Air Pollution: Air pollution, exacerbated by industrial emissions and transportation, remained a significant environmental challenge.
- International Climate Agreements: Meeting international climate commitments and targets required significant efforts and investments.
- Deforestation: Deforestation and land degradation continued to be concerns, affecting biodiversity and carbon sequestration.
Addressing climate change challenges required a comprehensive and long-term approach, including policy reforms, investments in climate-resilient infrastructure, sustainable land and water management, and international cooperation. While the government initiated several climate-related projects and reforms, the impacts of climate change and the need for adaptation and mitigation efforts remained significant challenges for Pakistan.
Energy reforms, progress and challenges
During the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) government’s tenure from 2018 to 2022, Pakistan faced significant energy-related challenges and initiated various reforms and projects to address these issues. Here are key energy-related reforms, progress, and challenges during this period:
Energy Reforms and Progress:
- Renewable Energy Development: The PTI government encouraged the development of renewable energy sources, including solar and wind power. Several renewable energy projects, such as solar and wind farms, were initiated to diversify the energy mix.
- CPEC Energy Projects: Pakistan continued to collaborate with China on energy projects under the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), including the development of power plants and infrastructure projects.
- Circular Debt Reduction: Efforts were made to address the issue of circular debt in the energy sector by improving revenue collection and reducing inefficiencies in the power distribution system.
- Energy Efficiency Programs: Initiatives were launched to improve energy efficiency in industries and the public sector, reducing energy wastage.
- LNG Imports: Pakistan imported liquefied natural gas (LNG) to meet its energy needs and reduce reliance on more expensive forms of energy.
- Power Shortages: Pakistan continued to experience power shortages, leading to load shedding in various parts of the country, which impacted industrial and domestic consumers.
- Circular Debt: The issue of circular debt in the energy sector remained a significant challenge, affecting the financial health of power distribution companies and the energy supply chain.
- Energy Subsidies: Subsidies on energy prices strained government finances and contributed to the circular debt problem.
- Outdated Infrastructure: The energy sector faced challenges related to outdated and inefficient infrastructure, including power plants and distribution networks.
- Energy Pricing: Balancing the need for affordable energy prices with the financial sustainability of the energy sector remained a policy challenge.
- Natural Gas Shortages: Pakistan faced natural gas shortages, impacting industries and households reliant on gas for heating and cooking.
- Energy Theft: Electricity theft and non-payment of bills contributed to revenue losses for power distribution companies.
- Climate Change: The energy sector’s reliance on fossil fuels contributed to greenhouse gas emissions and climate change impacts.
- Investment Constraints: Attracting private investment in the energy sector required addressing policy uncertainties and regulatory challenges.
Addressing Pakistan’s energy challenges required a multifaceted approach, including energy sector reforms, financial sustainability, and investments in modernizing the energy infrastructure. While efforts were made to promote renewable energy and improve energy efficiency, the energy sector continued to face complex issues that required long-term planning and policy implementation.
Foreign Relations progress and challenges, terms with neighboring countries
During the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) government’s tenure from 2018 to 2022, Pakistan’s foreign relations witnessed progress and encountered challenges, particularly in terms of its relationships with neighboring countries. Here’s an overview of foreign relations progress and challenges, focusing on neighboring countries:
China (People’s Republic of China):
- CPEC Collaboration: China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) projects continued to advance, promoting economic connectivity and infrastructure development.
- Bilateral Trade: China remained one of Pakistan’s largest trading partners, with efforts to enhance economic cooperation.
- Debt Concerns: Concerns were raised about Pakistan’s growing debt obligations to China as part of CPEC projects.
- Security Issues: Security challenges in Balochistan and other areas posed risks to CPEC and Chinese personnel working on projects.
- Kashmir Dispute: Tensions between Pakistan and India remained high due to the longstanding Kashmir dispute, with occasional skirmishes along the Line of Control.
- Diplomatic Relations: Formal diplomatic relations remained strained, with limited high-level engagement between the two countries.
- Peace Process: Pakistan played a significant role in facilitating peace negotiations between the Afghan government and the Taliban, contributing to the Afghan peace process.
- Security Concerns: The security situation in Afghanistan continued to be a challenge, with implications for Pakistan’s border regions.
- Refugees: Pakistan hosted millions of Afghan refugees, and their repatriation remained a complex issue.
- Border Security: Efforts were made to improve border security and cooperation, particularly along the Iran-Pakistan border.
- Border Tensions: Occasional border tensions and incidents, including clashes, occurred along the Iran-Pakistan border.
- Economic Cooperation: Expanding economic cooperation faced challenges, including issues related to trade and connectivity.
Russia (Russian Federation):
- Diplomatic Engagement: Pakistan worked to strengthen diplomatic ties with Russia, with high-level visits and discussions on regional security.
- Historical Tensions: Historical mistrust and Cold War-era rivalries posed challenges to fully normalizing relations.
- Diplomatic Engagement: Efforts were made to improve Pakistan-U.S. relations, with discussions on regional security and cooperation.
- Divergent Interests: Divergent interests in the region, particularly in Afghanistan, occasionally strained relations.
Gulf States (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Qatar):
- Economic Cooperation: Economic cooperation, including investments and financial assistance, continued with Gulf states.
- Regional Alliances: Pakistan had to navigate regional alliances and rivalries in the Gulf region, including the Qatar-Gulf crisis.
- Diplomatic Engagement: The PTI government made efforts to improve diplomatic relations with Russia. High-level visits, including meetings between Pakistani and Russian officials, helped build mutual understanding.
- Regional Security: Pakistan and Russia engaged in discussions on regional security, particularly regarding the situation in Afghanistan. Both countries recognized the importance of regional stability and sought to address shared concerns.
- Economic Cooperation: There were discussions about expanding economic cooperation, including trade and investment opportunities between Pakistan and Russia.
- Historical Mistrust: Historical mistrust and Cold War-era rivalries had long affected Pakistan-Russia relations. Overcoming this historical baggage was a challenge.
- Geopolitical Dynamics: The complex geopolitical dynamics in South Asia and Central Asia posed challenges to deepening relations, as both countries had to navigate their interests in a changing regional landscape.
Overall, the PTI government’s foreign relations efforts focused on strengthening economic cooperation, facilitating the Afghan peace process, and managing tensions with neighboring countries. However, longstanding challenges, such as the Kashmir dispute with India and security concerns in the region, continued to impact relations with neighboring countries. Balancing diplomatic priorities and addressing these challenges remained key aspects of Pakistan’s foreign policy during this period.