Post Partition Pakistan #25 Historical Developments 1995-2000

Pakistan's Political History (1995-2000): Turmoil, Transition, and Nuclear Tests


The period from 1995 to 2000 in Pakistan’s political history was marked by important developments, including the return to power of Nawaz Sharif, tensions with India leading to nuclear tests, and political turmoil that ultimately led to a military coup. This article explores key events, constitutional progress, political dynamics, social changes, religious issues, economic developments, and the leadership during this transformative period.


  • General Elections (February 1997): Pakistan held general elections in February 1997, resulting in a victory for Nawaz Sharif’s Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N).

Constitutional Developments:

  • Fifteenth Amendment (December 1996): The Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution aimed to strengthen the role of the President.

Political Movements:

  • Nawaz Sharif Returns as Prime Minister (February 1997): Nawaz Sharif’s PML-N won the elections, and he returned to the Prime Minister’s office.

Social and Religious Developments:

  • Religious Tensions: Religious tensions continued, with incidents like the rise of the Taliban in neighboring Afghanistan causing concerns.

Economic Progress:

  • Economic Reforms: Nawaz Sharif’s government introduced economic reforms, with a focus on addressing fiscal deficits and attracting foreign investment.


  • Nuclear Tests (May 1998): In response to India’s nuclear tests, Pakistan conducted a series of nuclear tests in May 1998, marking a significant development in the region’s nuclear dynamics.

Constitutional Developments:

  • Seventeenth Amendment (December 1998): The Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution aimed to address concerns about the President’s power to dismiss the government.

Political Movements:

  • Kargil Conflict (May-July 1999): The Kargil conflict with India in the disputed Kashmir region escalated tensions between the two nuclear-armed neighbors.

Social and Religious Developments:

  • Tensions with Religious Groups: Tensions between the government and religious groups persisted, with incidents like the hijacking of Indian Airlines Flight 814 in December 1999 raising concerns.


  • Military Coup (October 1999): General Pervez Musharraf, the Chief of Army Staff, led a military coup on October 12, 1999, ousting Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif’s government.

Constitutional Developments:

  • Suspension of the Constitution: Following the military coup, the Constitution was suspended, and martial law was imposed.

Political Movements:

  • End of Nawaz Sharif’s Rule: The military coup marked the end of Nawaz Sharif’s rule, and he was subsequently arrested and faced charges.

Social and Religious Developments:

  • Tensions with Religious Groups: General Musharraf’s government faced challenges related to religious extremism and militancy.

Economic Progress:

  • Economic Challenges: Pakistan continued to face economic challenges, including inflation and fiscal deficits.

Leadership and Key Figures:

  1. Nawaz Sharif (1997-1999): Nawaz Sharif continued to serve as Prime Minister during this period, overseeing critical developments, including the nuclear tests and the Kargil conflict.
  2. General Pervez Musharraf (1999-2008): General Musharraf assumed power after the military coup in 1999, ruling Pakistan until his resignation in 2008. His rule was marked by military authoritarianism and efforts to combat extremism.


The period from 1995 to 2000 in Pakistan’s political history witnessed a return to power by Nawaz Sharif, nuclear tests in response to India’s tests, the Kargil conflict, and ultimately, a military coup led by General Pervez Musharraf. These events had significant implications for Pakistan’s domestic and international standing. Constitutional amendments and political movements reflected the ongoing power struggles in the country. Social and religious tensions, as well as economic challenges, continued to shape Pakistan’s trajectory during this period.

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